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Lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous Aquifer System Groundwater Availability Study

 

-Introduction
-Need for Study
-Purpose, Objective, and Scope of Study
-Background
-Previous and Ongoing Numerical Models of Groundwater Flow
-Selected References
-Related Links
-Publications and Presentations
-Related News Stories and Press Releases
-Research Team

-Project Area Photos
-Video download of Oil Well population 1925-2012



ND Study AreaIntroduction

The hydraulically connected aquifers in the regional lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system are the shallowest—and often most accessible—of the aquifers within the Northern Great Plains aquifer system of the United States and Canada. These aquifers are present in two nationally important energy-producing areas, the Williston and Powder River structural basins, and provide a unique opportunity to study the water-energy nexus within a groundwater context.

This study area is part of the USGS Groundwater Resources Program to assess and quantify the availability of the Nation’s groundwater resources. 

Oil-field Facility

 

 

 

 

 

 


Need for Study

ND Study Area

The Williston and Powder River structural basins contain energy resources of national importance. Coal/lignite, oil, natural gas, and uranium, present in both structural basins in large quantities, currently are extracted from Tertiary-age and older geologic units; however, rapid technological advances (for example, horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing), coupled with ever-increasing resource discovery and characterization, are predicted to dramatically increase development of these energy resources in both basins in the near future. Increased extraction of these energy resources will require withdrawal of ever-increasing volumes of groundwater from the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system.

This study will provide the USGS with additional information on important aquifers in the States of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, and the Provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Canada. The study will provide an improved understanding of the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system in the context of a large, hydraulically connected regional aquifer system—an aquifer system undergoing developmental pressure with current and future competing water uses. Simulation of groundwater flow also will allow evaluation of different water-use and energy-development scenarios, as well as evaluation of possible future climatic effects on the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system. Perhaps most importantly, the study provides a unique opportunity to understand this regional system prior to large-scale energy development. Data compiled as part of the study will become part of the national USGS water-resources database, and will contribute to the USGS mission by describing and increasing the understanding of the Nation’s groundwater resources.

 

Purpose, Objective, and Scope of Study

The purpose of the groundwater availability study of the regional lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system in the Northern Great Plains is to quantify current groundwater resources, evaluate how these resources have changed over time, and provide tools to better understand system response to future anthropogenic demands and environmental stress.

The overall objective of this study is to assess the groundwater resource, particularly as energy resources are developed. This objective will advance tools, information, and conceptual understanding of this areally extensive regional transboundary aquifer system.

The scope includes:

  • Developing a hydrogeologic framework, estimating hydrologic budget components, refining the conceptual model of groundwater flow, and numerically simulating the regional groundwater flow for the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system in the Williston structural basin.

  • Estimating hydrologic budget components and developing a hydrologic budget for the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system in the Powder River structural basin.

Background

ND Study Area


Physiography

The lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifers underly about 75,000 square miles (mi2) in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming and are the shallowest aquifers of the Northern Great Plains aquifer system. Topography in this area is fairly flat with a gently rolling land surface underlain mostly by sedimentary rocks composed of sandstone, coal, and shale. Large river systems such as the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers erode the relatively soft sedimentary rock and create several hundred feet of local topographic relief. The area is semiarid, with mean precipitation ranging from 12 to 20 inches per year (in/yr) and available precipitation (difference between monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) ranging from 0 to 5 in/yr (Reilly and others, 2008). Pasture and hayland is the predominant land-cover category (70 percent) in the study area (Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium, 2011).

Hydrogeology
Total thickness of the regional lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system ranges from 2,000 feet (ft) in the Williston structural basin to as much as 8,000 ft in the Powder River structural basin. Lower Tertiary-age geologic units include primarily the Sentinel Butte, Tongue River, and the Slope/Cannonball Members of the Fort Union Formation in the Williston structural basin and the Tongue River, Lebo, and Tullock Members of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River structural basin. Upper Cretaceous-age geologic units include the Lance Formation, Hell Creek Formation, and the Fox Hills Sandstone. The basal confining units are the Upper Cretaceous-age Lewis Shale, Bearpaw Shale, and Pierre Shale.   

Williston Basin xsect

Generalized cross-section showing lower Tertiary- and Upper Cretaceous-age lithostratigraphic units in the Powder River and Williston structural basins.


Water in the regional lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system occurs mostly under confined conditions except along basin margins and in aquifers in the upper part of the lower Tertiary-age geologic units, which are characterized by local flow systems (Whitehead, 1996). Where aquifers in the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system are covered by thin unconsolidated glacial or alluvial deposits, water percolates downward through the deposits to the aquifers. Most of the recharge to the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system is from precipitation that falls on outcrop areas or from snowmelt that runs into ephemeral and perennial streams that cross aquifers or aquifer boundaries (Whitehead, 1996). Discharge is primarily to large perennial streams that dissect the aquifer system and to withdrawals for irrigation, public-supply, energy production, and self-supplied industrial uses. In 2000, the Northern Great Plains aquifer system provided 101 million gallons per day (Mgal/day) of water to irrigation (66.6 Mgal/day), public-supply (33 Mgal/day), and self-supplied industrial (1.62 Mgal/day) uses (table 1 from Maupin and Barber, 2005). Most of this water is from the regional lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system (Wesolowski, 1991) because relatively thick Cretaceous-age shale that underlies these aquifers hampers deeper drilling.

Energy developmentND Study Area

The Williston structural basin has been a leading domestic oil and natural gas producing region for more than one-half century. To meet future, and ever-growing needs, oil and gas development from deep formations such as the Bakken Formation is rapidly increasing due to recently improved hydraulic fracturing methods that require substantial volumes of freshwater from shallow aquifers or streams, rivers, and lakes. Other potential sources of energy in the Williston structural basin include coal/lignite and coal bed natural gas (CBNG). Both of these energy sources are present primarily in the lower Tertiary-age and Upper Cretaceous-age geologic units. Coal/lignite extraction commonly requires strip mining that removes large volumes of the host rock and aquifer material. CBNG development requires removal of substantial volumes of groundwater to allow degasification of the energy resource. Development of these energy resources can affect groundwater availability in the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer system through water and rock mining.


Since the late 1880s, the Powder River structural basin has been an important mineral and energy-producing region to the States of Wyoming and Montana and to the Nation. Until recently, the Powder River structural basin was known primarily for oil, coal, and uranium production; natural gas production from conventional resources was a small component of overall energy development in the structural basin. However, the development of unconventional natural gas (that is, CBNG) in the basin beginning in the late 1980s, and widespread development in the late 1990s, has rapidly transformed the basin into a nationally important natural-gas producing region.

 

Previous and Ongoing Numerical Models of Groundwater FlowND Study Area

Williston structural basin

  • Northern Great Plains (Downey, 1986). Grouped the lower Tertiary- and Upper Cretaceous-age geologic units as a single model aquifer layer. Finite-difference cell size of about 50 mi on a side.
  • Lower Tertiary- and Upper Cretaceous- age units in SW part of Williston structural basin (Hotchkiss and Levings, 1986). Modeled as five layers.  Cell size of 6 mi on a side.
  • Fox Hills aquifer in Canada and central United States (Anna, 2011). This aquifer was the upper layer in a regional model.
  • Fox Hills-Hell Creek aquifer in the center of the Williston structural basin (Fischer, North Dakota State Water Commission, ongoing).
  • Fox Hills-Hell Creek aquifer in Williston structural basin of eastern Montana (Reiten and Wood, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology and Idaho National Laboratory, ongoing)

Powder River structural basin

  • Lower Tertiary- and Upper Cretaceous- age units (Hotchkiss and Levings, 1986). Modeled as five layers.  Cell size of 6 mi on a side.
  • Lower Tertiary Wasatch and Fort Union aquifers in southeastern Montana (ALL Consulting and CH2M Hill, 2001).  Modeled as 17 layers with 0.5-mi cell size.
  • Lower Tertiary Wasatch and Fort Union aquifers in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming (Applied Hydrology Associates and Greystone Environmental Consultants, 2002). Modeled as 17 layers with 0.5-mi cell size.
  • Fort Union Formation in Powder River structural basin in Montana (Myers, 2009).  Modeled as nine layers with 0.8-kilometer cell size.







Selected References

ALL Consulting and CH2M Hill (ALL), 2001, Water resources technical report—Montana statewide oil and gas environmental impact statement and amendment of the Powder River and Billings resource management plans: Tulsa, Oklahoma, ALL Consulting, prepared for Bureau of Land Management, Miles City, Montana.

Anderson, F.J., 2006, Assessment of the shallow natural gas resource potential of North Dakota: North Dakota Geological Survey Geologic Investigations GI-32, MS Powerpoint presentation, 58 slides.

Anna, L.O., 1986, Geologic framework of the ground-water system in Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the Northern Great Plains, in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1402-B, 18 pls.

Anna, L.O., 2011, Effects of groundwater flow on the distribution of biogenic gas in parts of the northern Great Plains of Canada and United States: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5251, 24 p.

Applied Hydrology and Associates 1999, Technical report on groundwater modeling of CBM development, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Prepared for Bureau of Land Management, Buffalo, Wyoming.

Applied Hydrology Associates, Inc. and Greystone Environmental Consultants, Inc., 2002, Technical report—Powder River Basin oil and gas environmental impact statement—Groundwater modeling of impacts associated with mining and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin: Prepared for Bureau of Land Management, Buffalo,Wyoming.

Bartos, T.T., and Ogle, K.M., 2002, Water quality and environmental isotopic analyses of ground-water samples collected from the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations in areas of coalbed methane development—Implications to recharge and ground-water flow, eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4045, 88 p.

Bluemle, J.P., 1998, The coalbed methane potential of North Dakota lignites: North Dakota Geological Survey Open File Report 98-1, 38 pgs.

Brandt, R.A., 1953, Lignite resources of North Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 226, 78 p.

Busby, J.G., Kimball, B.A., Downey, J.S., and Peter, K.D., 1995, Geochemistry of water in aquifers and confining units of the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming: U.S. Geologi­cal Survey Professional Paper 1402-F, 146 p., 2 pls.

Clayton, Lee, Moran, S.R., Bluemle, J.P., and Carlson, C.G., 1980, Geologic map of North Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey, scale 1:500000, available at http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_16520.htm.

DeBruin, R.H., Lyman, R.M., Jones, R.W., Cook, L.W., 2000, Coalbed methane in Wyoming: Laramie, Wyoming State Geological Survey Information Pamphlet No. 7.

Doherty, J., 2005, PEST—Model-Independent Parameter Estimation, user manual (5th ed.): Brisbane, Australia, Watermark Numerical Computing, variously paged.

Downey, J.S., 1986, Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1402-E, 87 p., 3 pls.

Downey, J.S., and Dinwiddie, G.A., 1988, The regional aquifer system underlying the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming—Summary: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1402-A, 64 p., 3 pls.

Fienen, M.N., Doherty, J.E., Hunt, R.J., and Reeves, H.W., 2010, Using prediction uncertainty analysis to design hydrologic monitoring networks—Example applications from the Great Lakes water availability pilot project: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5159, 44 p.

Fletcher, S., 2005, Unconventional gas vital to U.S. Supply: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 103, no. 8, p. 20-25.

Flores, R.M., 2004, Coalbed methane in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana—An assessment of the Tertiary-Upper Cretaceous coal bed methane total petroleum system, in U.S. Geological Survey Powder River Basin Province Assessment Team, eds., Total petroleum system and assessment of coalbed gas in the Powder River Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-69-C, chap. 2, 56 p.

Gowda, P.H., Senay, G.B., Howell, T.A., and Marek, T.H., 2009, Lysimetric evaluation of simplified surface energy balance approach in the Texas High Plains: Applied Engineering in Agriculture, October 2009, v. 25, no. 5, p. 665-669.

Johnson, W.C., Werner, Brett, Guntenspergen, G.R., Voldseth, R.A., Millett, Bruce, Naugle, D.E., Tulbure, Mirela, Carroll, R.W.H., Tracy, John, and Olawsky, Craig, 2010, Prairie wetland complexes as landscape functional units in a changing climate: BioScience, v. 60, no. 2, p. 128-140.

Harbaugh, A.W., 2005, MODFLOW-2005 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--the ground-water flow process: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A16, variously paged.

Henderson, Thomas, 1985, Geochemistry of ground-water in two sandstone aquifer systems in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1402-C, 84 p.

Hinaman, K., 2005, Hydrogeologic framework and estimates of ground-water volumes in Tertiary and upper Cretaceous hydrogeologic units in the Powder River basin, Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5008, 24 p.

Hotchkiss, W.R., and Levings, J.F., 1986, Hydrogeology and simulation of water flow in strata above the Bearpaw Shale and equivalents of eastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4281, 72 p.

Lewis, B.D., and Hotchkiss, W.R., 1981, Thickness, percent sand, and configuration of shallow hydrogeologic units in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map 1-1317.

Lobmeyer, D.H., 1985, Freshwater heads and ground-water temperatures in aquifers of the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1402-D, 11 p., 1 pl.

Love, J.D., and Christiansen, A.C., 1985, Geologic map of Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey, scale 1:500000, available at http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_16366.htm.

Martin, J.E., Sawyer, J.F., Fahrenbach, M.D., Tomhave, D.W., and Schluz, L.D., 2004, Geologic map of South Dakota: South Dakota Geologic Survey, General Map Series 10, scale 1:500,000.

Maupin, M.A. and Barber, N.L., 2005, Estimated withdrawals from principal aquifers in the United States, 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1279, 46 p.

Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium, 2011, National land cover database: Conterminous United States NLCD 2006 land cover: Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium, 30-m data, accessed September 26, 2011, at  http://www.mrlc.gov/nlcd2006_downloads.php.

Murphy, E.C., 2006, The lignite reserves of North Dakota: North Dakota Geological Survey Report of Investigation no. 104, 141 p.

Murphy, E.C., and Goven, G.E., 1998, The coalbed methane potential of North Dakota lignites: North Dakota Geological Survey Open File Report 98-1, 38 p.

Murphy, E.C., Kruger, N.W., Goven, G.E., Vandal, Q.L., Jacobs, K.C., and Gutenkunst, M.L., 2006, The lignite resources of North Dakota: North Dakota Geological Survey Report of Investigation no. 105, 31 p.
Myers, T., 2009, Groundwater management and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin of Montana: Journal of Hydrology, v. 368, no. 1-4, p. 178-193.

Osmonson, L.M., Scott, D.C., Haacke, J.E., Luppens, J.A., and Pierce, P.E., 2011, Assessment of coal geology, resources and reserves in the southwestern Powder River Basin, Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1134, 135 p.

Otton, J.K., 2006, Environmental aspects of produced-water salt releases in onshore and estuarine petroleum-producing areas of the United States—A bibliography: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1154, 223 p.

Peacock, Kenneth, 1997, Assessing the cumulative impacts of surface mining and coal bed methane development on shallow aquifers in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming in Brandt, J.E., ed., Proceedings of the 14th Annual National Meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, Austin, Texas, May 10-15, 1997: American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, p. 648-666.

Petzet, A., 2005, Resource plays, CBM to fuel drilling upturns in U.S., Canada: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 103, p. 32-34.

Pollard, B.C., Smith, J.B., and Knox, C.C., 1972, Strippable lignite reserves of North Dakota: U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 8537, 37 p.

Pollastro, Richard M., Cook, Troy A., Roberts, Laura N.R., Schenk, Christopher, J., Lewan, Michael D., Anna, Lawrence O., Gaswirth, Stephanie B., Lillis, Paul G., Klett, Timothy R., Charpentier, Ronald R., Assessment of undiscovered oil resources in the Devonian-Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2008-3021, 2 p.

Reilly, T.E., Dennehy, K.F., Alley, W.M., and Cunningham, W.L., 2008, Ground-water availability in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1323, 70 p.

Sams, James, Lipinski, Brian, Harbert, William, and Ackman, Terry, 2007, Improving water management: ArcUser Online, January-March, 2007, accessed June 30, 2011, at http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0207/powderiver.html.

Specht, Ralph, 2002, The Williston Basin: the premier ‘Next Generation’ coalbed methane play in the Rocky Mountain/Northern Great Plains [abs.]: Bismarck, North Dakota, 10th Williston Basin Horizontal Well and Petroleum Conference, May 5-7, 2002, accessed August 3, 2011, at http://pttc.mines.edu/CBM/williston/index.html.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2011, Lake Sakakawea quick facts, accessed September 26, 2011, at http://www.nwo.usace.army.mil/html/Lake Proj/garrison/lake.html.

Vuke, S. M., Porter, K.W., Lonn, J.D., and Lopz, D.A., 2007, Geologic map of Montana: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Geologic Map 62, scale 1:500000.

Wesolowski, Edwin A., 1991, Estimated use of water in North Dakota in 1985 and trends during 1960-85: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 89-4003, 1 sheet.

Westenbroek, S.M., Kelson, V.A., Dripps, W.R., Hunt, R.J., and Bradbury,K.R., 2010, SWB—A modified Thornthwaite-Mather Soil-Water-Balance code for estimating groundwater recharge: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6–A31, 60 p.

Wheaton, J., and Metesh, J.J., 2002, Potential ground-water drawdown and recovery for coalbed methane development in the Powder River Basin, Montana: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 458, 59 p.

Whitehead, R.L., 1996, Ground water atlas of the United States—Segment 8, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Atlas 730-I, 24 p.

World Energy Council, 2010, 2010 Survey of Energy Resources, 608 p., accessed June 27, 2011, at http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/3040.asp.

Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, 2011, Powder River Basin coalbed production chart, accessed June 29, 2011, at http://wogcc.state.wy.us/coalbedchart.cfm.

U.S. Geological Survey, 1996, Groundwater Atlas of the United States, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA 730-I, 82 p.

U.S. Department of Interior, May 20, 2011, Bakken Formation oil assessment in North Dakota, Montana will be updated by U.S. Geological Survey: Press Release, accessed online on May 26, 2011 at: http://www.doi.gov/news/pressreleases/Bakken-Formation-Oil-Assessment-in-North-Dakota-Montana-will-be-updated-by-US-Geological-Survey.cfm


 

 

Related Links

Publications and Presentations

Approved abstracts:

Aurand, Katherine R., Long, Andrew J., and Putnam, Larry D., 2012, Groundwater recharge estimates using a soil-water-balance model for the Powder River and Williston structural basins [abs.]: 2012 Western South Dakota Hydrology Conference, April 19, 2012, Rapid City, South Dakota.

 

Related News Stories and Press Releases

 

Williston structural basin

Powder River structural basin



Research Team

Research Team Members
Joanna Thamke, Project Lead, Montana Groundwater Specialist
U.S. Geological Survey      
Montana Water Science Center  
3162 Bozeman Ave.    
Helena, Montana 59601    
Office telephone: 406-457-5923   
Email: jothamke@usgs.gov
Andy Long, Lead Groundwater Modeler 
U.S. Geological Survey 
South Dakota Water Science Center
1608 Mt. View Rd. 
Rapid City, South Dakota 57702
Office telephone: 605-394-3237 
Email: ajlong@usgs.gov 
Roy Sando, Physical Scientist/GIS Specialist
U.S. Geological Survey
Montana Water Science Center
3162 Bozeman Ave.
Helena, Montana Helena, Montana 59601
Office telephone: 406-457-5953
Email: tsando@usgs.gov   

Kyle Davis, Groundwater Modeler
U.S. Geological Survey
South Dakota Water Science Center
1608 Mt. View Rd.
Rapid City, South Dakota 57702
Office telephone: 605-394-3237
Email: kyledavis@usgs.gov 

Tim Bartos, Wyoming Groundwater Specialist 
U.S. Geological Survey
Wyoming Water Science Center
521 Progress Circle, Suite 6
Cheyenne, Wyoming 82007 
Office telephone: 307-775-9160 
Email: ttbartos@usgs.gov 

Claudia Faunt, Groundwater Modeler
U.S. Geological Survey
California Water Science Center
4165 Spuance Road, Suite 200
San Diego, California 92101
Office telephone: 619-225-6142
Email: ccfaunt@usgs.gov

Gary LeCain, Hydrologist
U.S. Geological Survey 
Central Region, Office of Groundwater 
West 6th Ave. & Kipling St.
Denver Federal Center Building 53, Room F1217
Lakewood, Colorado 80225-0046 
Office telephone: 303-236-1475
Email: gdlecain@usgs.gov 

Stan Leake, Research Hydrologist, GW Modeler
U.S. Geological Survey
Arizona Water Science Center
520 N. Park Ave., Suite 221
Tucson, Arizona 85719
telephone: 520-670-6671 x259
Email: saleake@usgs.gov
Derek Ryter, Physical Scientist
U.S. Geological Survey
Nebraska Water Science Center
5231 South 19th
Lincoln, NE 68512-1271
Office telephone: 402-328-4123
Email: dryter@usgs.gov 
Geoff Delin, Regional Groundwater Specialist
U.S. Geological Survey
Central Region, Office of Groundwater 
West 6th Ave. & Kipling St.
Denver Federal Center Building 53, Room F1225
Lakewood, Colorado 80225-0046 
Office telephone: 303-236-1471
Email: delin@usgs.gov
 

 

Oil Wells in the Bakken Formation

 

   

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